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"Study Awareness Raising and Capacity Building about Electronic Waste in Nepal"


Electronic waste or E-waste, for short, is a generic term embracing various forms of electronic and electronic equipment that have ceased to be of any value to their owners. There is not yet a standard definition of e-waste. However, e-waste has been defined internationally such as:

EU WEEE Directives (EU, 2002a): Electrical of electronic equipment which is waste... including all components, sub assemblies and consumables, which are part of the product at the time of discarding DIrectives 75/442/EEC, article 1(a) defines waste as any substances or object which the holder disposes of or is required to dispose of pursuant for the provisions of natural law in force.

Basal Action Network (Puckett and Smith, 2002): E-waste encompasses a broad and growing range of electronic devices ranging from large household device such as refrigerator, air conditioner, cell phones, personal stereos and consumer electronics to computers which have been discarded by there users.


Description of the situation of e-waste in country:


There was not any recorded data, or published reference publications about e-waste generation in the country available; hence this was the first attempt to gather first-hand information about waste generation and waste that comes in from outside the country. A very rigorous field visit, as well as desktop study, were made to gather information and develop the IEC materials on e-waste in the for of briefing papers, posters, etc.


For detail study findings and full report click here.



Study Title: Environmental Health Condition of Hospitals in Nepal, 2013
Technical and Financial Support: World Health Organization, Country Office for Nepal



Study was conducted with objective to develop evidence based paper on Environmental Health Conditions of Hospitals in Nepal. Study was conducted on 14 Governmental Hospitals, 15 Private Hospitals and 2 Mission Hospitals.


Health Care Waste Management:

There are several kinds of hazardous waste and each requires separate collection, transportation, specific treatment and disposal methods, which include encapsulation, sterilization, burial, incineration and long-term storage. Some wastes, such as pharmaceutical wastes, cannot be disposed of in low-cost settings and should be sent to a large center for destruction or returned to the supplier. The waste-disposal zone should be fenced off; it should have a water point with soap or detergent and disinfectant for hand washing or to clean and disinfect containers, with facilities for waste-water disposal into a soak away system or sewer. The waste-disposal zone should also be located at least 30m from groundwater sources. Following diagrams represents the hospital waste management approaches.


Findings of the study are as follows:

Only one public hospital has complete onsite source separation but not in all wards. 3.23% (1 private) of hospital have good source separation of waste. While 32.26% of the hospitals have acceptable level of source separation practices. 61.29% of hospitals have very poor source separation including completely absence of such practices in 6.45% (2 private) of the hospitals.

Only 3.23% (1 public) hospital has very good waste collection system; 12.90% have acceptable level, whereas 80.65% of hospitals (6 private and 4 governmental) do not practices appropriate and separately waste collection.
Only 22.58% of hospitals have relatively appropriate and separate transport of waste and remaining large 67.42% of hospitals have very poor transportation.

Only one hospital (3.23%) have adopted environment sound management treatment practices, another 6.45% hospital does have acceptable level waste treatment practices whereas rest 90.32% hospitals do not practices environment sound waste treatment system at all.

Only one public hospital (3.23%) have adopted very good waste disposal system and; 6.45% public hospital does have good disposal system; 9.68% of the private hospitals have acceptable level of waste disposal practices whereas 80.65% hospitals do not practices safe disposal of health-care waste.


Environmentally Sound Health Care Waste Management

Alka Hospital
Kanti Children Hospital
Dhulikhel Hospital
Madhyapur Thimi Hospital
Blue Cross Hospital
Nobel Hospital


The 100% positive results of mercury contamination through consecutive bio-monitoring of the mercury in aquatic animals, Dental Health Care Professionals, People with mercury dental felling in their mouth and Female of child bearing age, it strongly felt among all and especially among dental health care professional and academicians to move towards mercury free dentistry in Nepal.


NRFN jointly with Government of Nepal, Ministry of Health and Population, Department of Health Services, Management Division, Department of Health Services, Oral Health Focal Unit and Nepal Dental Association(NDA), start working on this issue from joint bio monitoring to awareness raising, capacity buildings and policy dialogue.


A two days national conference on Mercury Free Dentistry from May 26 to 27, 2014 has been organized by National Research Foundation Nepal (NRFN), jointly with Nepal Dental Association (NDA) in close coordination with the Oral Health Focal Point, Management Division, Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Population, government of Nepal and supported by World Alliance for Mercury Free Dentistry (WAMFD), Asian Center for Environmental Health.


The Objective of the Program was:

Time bound Sectoral commitment to address Mercury Free Dentistry from Government., Professional Organization and Academic Institutions as Kathmandu Declaration/Resolution on “Mercury-Free Dentistry”.
Awareness and capacity building about mercury amalgam and impact abatement of mercury in general.
Effective implementation of MOHP decision on ban of Import, Purchase and Use of Mercury based equipments
Push and Support for the Minamata Convention on Mercury ratification by Government.
Increased possibilities of early compliance of Convention provisions.
Protection of Professional & Public Health and Environment for all etc.


 Recommendations of National Conference on Mercury Free Dentistry


Comprehensive regulatory frameworks (Acts and Regulation) to promote mercury free health care services and mercury free dentistry in Nepal by 2015/2016.
General Practitioners and Professionals Associations have plan to phase down the use of mercury amalgam in children and pregnant women by 2017 and phase down the use of mercury amalgam from dentistry sector by 2018.
Representative of Academic University and Institutions have agreed to recommend and support for the revision of dental curriculum by 2019.
Issues of awareness raising, capacity building, and development of waste management facilities and encourage of insurance policy and tax exemption for mercury free alternatives.
Ratification of the Minamata Convention on Mercury as soon as possible.